Volume 6, Issue 5, October 2017, Page: 90-95
Individualistic and Collectivistic Values, Age and Length of Residency Among Chinese Australian Immigrants
Tan Kan Ku, Department of Nursing & Paramedicine, Victoria Polytechnic, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Michael Ha, Department of Financial Engineering, Sino-US College, Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai, China
Received: Jun. 1, 2017;       Accepted: Jun. 23, 2017;       Published: Oct. 18, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.pbs.20170605.13      View  2416      Downloads  111
It had been documented in the literature that Chinese people endorsed more highly collectivist values when compared with their Western counterparts who endorsed more individualistic values (bi-cultural differences). The aim of the study was to examine if the same pattern existed among three groups of Chinese people (mono culture) in Australia, without comparing them with another ethnic group. A method using a 26-item survey labelled as Cultural Value Scale (CVS) was administered to 138 Chinese Australians. Principal component analyses (with varimax rotation) were used to identify underlying dimensionality in the correlations of items. Scales were constructed from the final solution and Cronbach’s alpha calculated. Subscale score variations were analysed to examine the discriminant validity of the subscales. Our results using Principal Component Analysis revealed four dimensions accounting for 47 percent of the variation within items. Four factors were derived. These were labelled Collectivist Family Conformity (CFC), Collectivist Family Interdependence (CFI), Individualist Self Assertion (ISA) and Individualist Self Opinion (ISO). Developed as subscales, reliability analysis indicated moderately high internal consistency with respective alpha coefficients of 0.77, 0.67, 0.54, and 0.61. We conclude that Chinese Australians endorsed more collectivist values than individualist values, correlated positively with the literature.
Chinese Australian, Cultural Values, Collectivistic, Individualistic
To cite this article
Tan Kan Ku, Michael Ha, Individualistic and Collectivistic Values, Age and Length of Residency Among Chinese Australian Immigrants, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2017, pp. 90-95. doi: 10.11648/j.pbs.20170605.13
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Triandis (1990). Cross-cultural studies on individualism and collectivism. In: J. J. Berman (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1989: Cross-cultural Perspectives, 37, 41-135. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska.
Traindis (2001) - Individualism –collectivism and personality. Journal of Personality, 69(6), 907-924.
Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organisations across Nations (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
King, A. Y. & Bond, M. H. (1985). The Confucian paradigm of man: A sociological view. In W. S. Tsang & D. H. Wu (Eds). Chinese Culture and Mental Health, 29-45. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Yang, K. S. (1995). Chinese Social Orientation: An Integrative Analysis. In: T-Y Lin, W-S Tsang & E-K Yeh (Eds). Chinese Societies and Mental Health, 19-39. New York. Oxford University Press.
Zhou, Y. (2008). The Modern Significance of Confucianism. Asian Social Science, 4, 11, 13-16.
Ku T. K. (2007). Culture and Stigma of Mental Illness: A Comparison of General and Psychiatric Nurses of Chinese and Anglo-Australian Background. Master Thesis, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne. http//repository.unimelb.edu.au/10187/8400.
Fan, C. & Karnilowicz, W. (2000). Attitudes towards Mental Illness and Knowledge of Mental Health Services among the Australian and Chinese Community. Australian Journal of Primary Health Interchange, 6, 38-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PY00017
Lin T. (1983). Psychiatry and Chinese Culture. The Western Journal of Medicine, 139, 862-867.
Hsiao, F. H. (2002). Chinese-Australian Families’ help-seeking behaviour for mental illness. PhD Thesis. Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, Australia.
Kaiser, H. (1970). A second generation Little Jiffy. Psychometrika, 35, 401-415.
Kaiser, H. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.
Barlett, M. S. (1954). A note on the multiplying factors for various chi square approximations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 16 (Series B), 296-298.
Ku, T. K. & Ha, M. (2015). Culture and Stigma of Mental Illness: Path Analysis Conducted with AMOS in Transcultural Psychiatry in Australia. Journal of Biosciences and Medicine, 3, 15-22.
Ku, T. K. & Ha, M. (2015). Stigma of Mental Illness: Social Distancing Attitudes among Registered Nurses in Australia. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 3, 40-47.
Ku T. K. & Ha M. (2015). Negative Stereotyping Attitudes towards Mental Illness: Is it Culturally related? Journal of Biosciences and Medicine, 3, 32-39.
Hu, H. C. (1944). The Chinese Concept of Face. American Anthropologist, 46, 45-64.
Hwang, K. K. (1987). Face and Favour: The Chinese Power Game. American Journal of Sociology, 92, 944-974.
Lee, L., Lee, M. T. Y., Chiu, M. Y. T. & Kleinman, A. (2006). Experience of social stigma by people with schizophrenia in Hong Kong. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 153-157.
Browse journals by subject